To the Ends of the Earth and Arusha

To the Ends of the Earth and Arusha

To the Ends of the Earth

by Chase Friesen

Backed by the Parkland Institute, David Lavallee’s, To the Ends of the Earth, highlights the world’s reliance on unpredictable, and busting energy systems. Although the use of oil and gas is global, the basis of Lavallee’s film was focused mainly on Canadian production.

Our Dependency vs. New Energy

As noted in Lavallee’s film, Canada has the second biggest oil reserve in the world. Therefore, the flow of our economy is increasingly dependent on the flow of oil. Although there is a long way to come until our dependency on oil is minimalistic, there are things we as individuals can do to help expedite the process. There are also small business and non-for-profit organizations in Canada that support sustainable energy and the communities that face the swings of the fossil fuel economy.

The Arusha Centre

One example of a local organization is the Arusha Centre. The Arusha Centre values the importance of a local economy with a complementary currency system, Calgary Dollars. This monetary system boosts the local economy through the exchange of community members’ goods and skills and with local businesses rather than relying on unpredictable global markets. As a result of the crashing oil market, many individuals working in the industry lost their jobs. According to Johnson, of CBC News, from “December 2014 until April 2016, 3,853 jobs were lost in Alberta in oil and gas extraction and a further 29,196 in lost jobs that support energy and mining extraction” (2016). As a result of this loss of income, many individuals find it hard to apply their skills to other jobs or careers. However, one of our goals at the Arusha Centre, through Calgary Dollars, is to help individuals view their skills and interests as applicable opportunities to benefit themselves and their community. As for alternative energy, the Arusha Centre has created a project called Open Streets. Open Streets is a project based on energy conservation and sustainable energy education. Gerald Wheatley a manager at the Arusha Centre, demonstrated pedal powered live music at the January 25th Calgary premiere of To the Ends of the Earth at Plaza Theatre and talked about the importance of electricity conservation in Calgary.

The Arusha Centre’s Open Streets program uses bike generators to educate about electricity in Alberta while powering live performances, speakers, and video projection

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Johnson T., (2016, July 6). CBC News. Just how many jobs have been cut in the oil patch? Retrieved from

To the Ends of the Earth, (2016). Retrieved from

Arusha Centre: Communities Taking Action, (2017). Retrieved from

Calgary Dollars, (2016). Retrieved from

Open Streets Calgary, (2016). Retrieved from

Arusha Centre 2016 Report Out Now

SI Series 8: Personal Social Innovation – From the micro to the macro.

Social innovation has features of a spectrum from the micro to macro, moving from the individual to systemic (see Fig. 1). Tjornbo and Westley suggest it is a “whole systems and multi-scale approach that looks at the influence of micro-, meso-, and macrolevel drivers of transformation” (2012, p. 167 ). All social interactions are influenced by personal intra-actions, or the internal activity that individual beliefs and habitualized reactions create. The social composition of any society is defined by, and defines, an individual composition of values, reactivity, knowledge, belief and esteem. As such, social innovation as a systemic notion must range the spectrum from micro to macro, and include personal innovation, interpersonal innovation, organisational innovation and inter-organisational innovation.

graphic - personal to system innovation

Figure 1. Spectrum of micro to macro elements of social innovation. Based on Westley & Antadze’s “Systemic View of Innovation” (2010).

We as individuals must personally look to innovate within ourselves, our routines, beliefs and internal systems of meaning-making to reconsider our relationship to others and the natural environment. In doing so, we begin to activate the spectrum of social innovation; we move reciprocally between the internal to the external (personal to the social). As we make change within ourselves we make change with our communities around us; we instigate initiatives, create collaboratively, start social or eco-enterprises or design policies and support politics that seek to re-evaluate the social-environmental system. We engage internal and external development.

An example of this is the story of the Barefoot College (Westley, 2013; Savka, 2012). Being inspired by the philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi, Sanjit “Bunker” Roy and a small group of concerned individuals were personally impacted from working in the poorest regions in India. With a vision to work with the poor to establish a ‘barefoot’ school, Roy worked with villages who began to teach themselves the necessary tools to clean and supply water to their communities and build their own homes. From there weather and environmental changes inspired them to take care of resources, build and produce solar panels, and preserve water usage. This was all done through the empowerment of the poorest of the poor: village women. The ‘college’ radically challenged the dominant Indian cultural norms of top-down education, development and innovation, and worked ground-up, implementing the personal changes that individuals felt in the social networks of communities to address systemic needs, such as innovations to impact their communities and the environment. Students weren’t passive recipients of the project, they had to overcome their own personal norms, biases and beliefs to participate fully, which they did. It was an incredible hurdle, but the benefits were immense.

So, when we say social innovation we’re not just talking about large “out-there” policy or political decisions to impact systems (although of course it includes this). It includes a multi-tiered level of innovation that is interlinked and interdependent. It includes external transformation as well as an internal one.

– Mike Unrau


Savka, N. & Slezic, L. (2012). Make light: The barefoot college. Sierra, 97(5), 32-57.

Tjornbo, O. & Westley, F. (2012). Game changers: The Big Green Challenge and the role of challenge grants in social innovation. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 3(2), 166-183. DOI: 10.1080/19420676.2012.726007

Westley, F. (2013). Social innovation and resilience: How one enhances the other. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 11(3), 6-8. Retrieved from

Westley, F. & Antadze, N. (2010). Making a difference: Strategies for scaling social innovation for greater impact. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, 15(2), article 2. Retrieved from